Immune system

Immune system

Today, according to the association, in addition to striving for great success, it also sees its task in taking on social commitment and socio-political responsibility. (Football camp for children: holiday fun with a kick)

One swears by jogging his laps through the park as soon as he gets up. The other loves exercising after work. But when is the best time to exercise effectively? “” It always depends on what you want to achieve and what type of person you are, “says Professor Ingo Frohböse from the German Sport University in Cologne. “Morning is better than evening for fat burning.” “But many people don’t like training after getting up. But not everyone can train well in the evening either. Exercise robs some people of sleep later on.

In the morning the fat disappears

“” The fat metabolism is very active at night, “explains Ingo Frohböse. This effect can still be exploited during morning training. However, early sporting activities are not right for everyone. For some, the circulatory system does not play along at this time of day. “” In the morning the organism is still set to rest. To avoid circulatory problems, it is advisable to warm up for at least ten minutes, “recommends Holger Zapf, National Training Director at the Fitness Company. Ingo Frohböse also advises: “” Plan additional time in the morning for a slightly longer warm-up phase. “”

When sport jeopardizes sleep

In the evening the body is already active. The warm-up can then be a little shorter. “” Some people have problems falling asleep when they train late at night, “says sports scientist Zapf. “” Then you should attach particular importance to the ‘cool down’. “” When the training session ends, the metabolism is gradually reduced and regeneration is initiated.

It works best in light

“Otherwise, I should train when I can make optimal use of the daylight,” “says qualified sports teacher Frohböse. This has a strong impact on the hormonal balance, explains the fitness expert. “” That has an effect on the mood in general but also on the training. “” That is why it makes sense, especially in autumn and winter, to put a training day on the weekend. Before and after work, it is usually dark in the cold season.

Take it easy

On the other hand, Frohböse considers personal biorhythms to be less important. “” It is a bit different for every person, but it has no significant influence on the effectiveness of the training. “Instead, Gladböse advises:” “The best time is when I can train stress-free.” “Otherwise there would be many positive effects during the training session, explains Holger Zapf. “” When you have to work out, exercise causes more stress than it reduces it.

Those who regularly jog, cycle or are otherwise active in sports usually feel fit. However, sometimes the body doesn’t work the way we want it to.community service college essay examples Then exhaustion and tiredness predominate. The performance is no longer correct or we have colds. Competitive athletes know the phenomenon – and usually also the causes. Recreational athletes, on the other hand, are mostly at a loss if they seem tired or tired for no reason. There are usually solid reasons for being exhausted. Excessive demands, a lack of training breaks or a poor diet are the most common causes that drain athletes’ strength. A current study shows that even a slight undersupply of B vitamins can impair performance in sports.

B vitamins give energy

B vitamins such as B1, B2, B6 and B12 play a major role in the supply of energy and cell renewal. With intense physical exertion, B vitamins are therefore increasingly required. The current US study shows that, especially in competitive athletes, even a slight undersupply is quickly apparent. A severe deficiency, on the other hand, is rare, as B vitamins are contained in meat, milk and whole grain products. However, anyone who goes on a diet in addition to exercising must expect poor performance.

Fat and sugar make you tired

However, the most common nutritional errors made by athletes include a high-fat or high-sugar diet and a lack of fluids. An adequate supply of carbohydrates is crucial for optimal performance. You should use complex carbohydrates made from starch, for example from whole grain products. In this way, the carbohydrate stores are filled and the blood sugar level is kept constant. Sweets, on the other hand, only bring short-term energy, the blood sugar level drops after a short time. Shortly before exercise, substantial meals are taboo, because a full stomach makes you tired.

Overwork weakens the immune system

Higher, faster, further – if you are hoping for ever greater success, you risk overwhelming your body. The body can only regenerate itself with moderate exercise and the immune system is strengthened. Training until exhaustion, on the other hand, can have the opposite effect and weaken the body’s own defenses, reports GEO magazine. So it’s better to shift down a gear during training – and it’ll be better next time.

Your nose is runny, your throat is scratchy – and that today, of all days, when you have worked yourself up to go to the gym again. “” Lie down, health is more important than training, “says the weaker self. “” No, I’ve been sloppy for the last few weeks, “says the athletic ambition. In this case the weaker self is exceptionally right, infections are not to be trifled with. Research has shown that stresses that exhaust the body to a great extent checkmate the immune system. Recreational athletes also feel this effect: “” If a flu wave is spreading and you are overwhelmed by sport, you can weaken your defense to such an extent that you get sick, “says Holger Gabriel, sports medicine specialist at the University of Jena. This is especially true for weight training or other activities that lead to severe muscle soreness.

Rest with serious infections

The severity of the infection is the rule of thumb for training when you are ill. “” A runny nose is not an issue, “says sports and general practitioner Hans-Peter Lange from Münster. But the fun stops with a fever, chills, blocked sinuses, sore throat or cough. “” If you continue to exercise, there is a risk of heart muscle inflammation, “warns the doctor. The best excuse to stay on the sofa is definitely a blood test at the doctor, which shows a serious infection.

Heart stumbles after carousing bouts

Alcohol in large quantities is also a burden that the organism has to deal with first. The delicious caipirinhas from Saturday evening clearly dampen the training motivation for the next morning, and that’s a good thing. “In a post-alcohol phase, some people have problems with cardiac rhythm disorders,” says Joachim Latsch, a doctor at the Institute for Cardiovascular Research and Sports Medicine at the Cologne Sports University. “” Doctors come across this ‘Schützenfest syndrome’ again and again. “”

Water balance gets mixed up

The heart loses its rhythm because alcohol has a strong diuretic effect. With the water, the body also loses electrolytes, which are responsible for the conduction of stimuli in the nerve cells and thus also for controlling the heart muscle. Joachim Latsch advises drinking a lot, preferably isotonic drinks that bring the ions back into balance. The urine is a good indicator of the state of the water balance and thus also of performance: the darker it is, the more the organism has to cope with the consequences of drinking.

Lack of sleep dampens motivation

The big yawn is the most common reason to skip training. Lack of sleep or a change in sleep rhythm dampen the willingness to perform. Researchers from the University of Liverpool have observed how a long-haul flight affects the performance of a football team: A time zone shift of more than three hours results in fatigue, lack of concentration, lack of drive, headaches and general poor health. These symptoms are not only caused by jet lag: Shift work or an irregular sleep rhythm are also manifest in this way.

The brain sleeps, the body rests

Lack of sleep and top performance are mutually exclusive. However, fatigue is not a reason to forego sport. “Sleep is primarily a need of the brain, not of the body!”, Says Joachim Latsch. Rest in the waking state, that is, no stress on the muscles, is sufficient for regeneration. Do the self-test: even if you almost fall asleep while working at the screen, you will be in top shape again after jogging for ten minutes. The situation is different with sports that require a high level of concentration and coordination, such as free climbing or downhill biking. Here, the risk of injury increases with every hour of lack of sleep.

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If you want to improve your fitness, you have to sweat several times a week. This is the common recommendation for recreational athletes. But for many this is simply not possible. Those who have a lot on their minds at work and come home late or have been hogged down by the family all day often don’t feel like lace up their sports shoes in the evening. So why not train at the weekend – rested, without stress and time pressure? Anyone who thinks that such a minimal program on Saturday or Sunday does not bring anything is wrong. Veronika Mund, sports scientist and trainer at the Fitness Company in Frankfurt, reveals how you can stay in shape, tone your figure and reduce weight in little time.

Less and more intensive is often more

Whether sport is worthwhile does not depend on the frequency of the training units. “” Many people think they don’t have time because they always associate two to three hours with ‘doing sport’, “” says fitness trainer Veronika Mund. “According to current scientific knowledge, it makes sense in the field of recreational sports to train shorter and more intensively – of course, adapted to individual performance.” faster. The prerequisite for this, however, is that you train regularly. Those who also make their everyday life more sporty during the week by running up the stairs instead of taking the elevator or leaving the car more often and walking will collect additional bonus points for their fitness.

Stay in shape and improve your performance

“If you only have time to do something for your general fitness at the weekend, you should do moderate endurance training,” recommends Mund. “” Go walking, jogging, cycling or skating and make sure that you do not get out of breath. “” Beginners can keep to the so-called “” conversation pace “”. This means that you can still have a relaxed conversation with your training partner. At the beginning, 20 to 30 minutes is ideal. They can later be increased to 45 minutes. In order to maintain the individual level of performance, it is sufficient to train on just one day a week – optionally on a Saturday or Sunday. Advanced beginners who want to improve their performance should, however, add one more training unit to their program.

Not only get fit, but also get slim

Whether and how quickly someone loses weight while exercising depends to a large extent on their personal requirements. “” If you have a body mass index of more than 30, i.e. you are very overweight, it makes sense to start with moderate endurance training at a conversational pace, “” says Mund. If you just want to lose a few pounds, the expert advises strength training: “” It is true that body weight is also reduced through endurance training. But when you build your muscles, you burn significantly more calories. “” Since the body burns 70 percent fat even when it is resting, muscle training is the optimal fat burner program. “It is also suitable for those who are satisfied with their weight and just want to tone their figure a bit,” says Mund. Beginners should make sure that they can do between 15 and 20 repetitions when training with weights. “” At the beginning one series is enough, later it should be two or three, with a small break in between. “” After about three months, the weights are slowly increased. The repetitions are reduced to ten to twelve.

A dream comes true: Steel your body while sitting comfortably on the couch. EMS (electrical muscle stimulation) makes it possible to strengthen muscles without doing anything yourself. The handy devices look like a mixture of a Gameboy and a calculator, have few buttons and a display. Electrodes are placed on the skin and powered by cables. The electrical impulses act directly on the nerves at the muscle ends and cause the muscle to alternately contract and loosen – regardless of whether you are sitting or lying down.

Known as a rehabilitation measure for a long time

Doctors have been using EMS for rehabilitation after accidents and operations, as well as in pain therapy for more than 50 years. “The patient builds up muscles faster and more intensively than with 20 minutes of physiotherapy a day,” says Roland Werzinger, sports doctor and orthopedist from Munich. Above all, competitive athletes like ski ace Martina Ertl rely on the effect of the “” pocket trainer “”: “” I mainly used it when I was injured, so that the muscles were retained. “” The situation with the biathlon Olympic champion is completely different Kati Wilhelm: “” I haven’t tried it yet for strength training, but for regeneration after the workout to promote blood circulation. “”

Different variants and programs

Electrical muscle stimulation can therefore be used very differently. Depending on whether you want to warm up the muscles, break down accumulated lactic acid or train strength. The manufacturers offer different variants and even programs that have been specially designed for women, to improve fitness or for endurance training.

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